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Forensic Ballistics in Criminal Justice Forensic Ballistics in Criminal Justice
Forensic Ballistics in Criminal Justice
by K. Kumar
Edition: 1987 Edition W/S 1990, Reprinted 2015
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Product Details:
Format: Hardbound
Pages: 320 pages
Publisher: Eastern Book Company
Language: English
ISBN: 9789351453031
Dimensions: 24*15*2 CM
Shipping Weight: 0.630(Kg)
Publisher Code: AC/303, EA/2341
Date Added: 2001-01-01
Search Category: ebooks,Lawbooks
Jurisdiction: Indian
Overview:

The present work contains a brief introduction about firearms, ammunition, various phenomena associated with the three branches of ballistics, descriptions of gunshot injury cases, laboratory equipment, and techniques for examination of clue materials, scene investigation of shooting cases, expert evidence and illustrations from decided cases, all in seventeen chapters.

Replete with illustrations, photographs and useful data, the book will be found to be most useful and informative.

                                                                                                         Reviews

All India Reporter : In this book, the author has given a critical analysis of the subject of forensic ballistics in criminal justice, which is a very important and useful contribution to the field of forensic science. This work will be found very useful not only by the members of the Bar and Bench and lawyers but also by the Medico-Legal students, and crime and investigation branch machinery. The book provides an interesting reading to a layman also and it is a must for every library.

Kerala Law Times : A glance at the contents of the book and a perusal of its important discussion bear testimony to the industry, diligence, spirit of academic enquiry, objective approach and thoroughness, with which this technical and difficult subject has been presented in a very practical and interesting manner. It is simple, direct and extremely practical and it holds the readers' interest throughout.


Table Of Contents:

CHAPTER I : FIREARMS

  1. Definition 1
  2. Historical outfit 1
  3. Gradual development of firearms 2

CHAPTER II : CLASSIFICATION OF FIREARMS

  1. Introduction 13
  2. Bore and Calibres 14
  3. Choke 15
  4. Teschner Calibre System 16
  5. Calibre 17
  6. Types of Choke 17
  7. Choke Markings 19
  8. Manufacturing Process 20
  9. Musket 20
  10. Shotguns 21
  11. Pistols 25
  12. Revolvers 29
  13. Rifles 32
  14. Sub-Machine Guns (Carbines) 37
  15. Sten Gun 38
  16. Thompson Sub-machine Gun 40
  17. 0.30" U. S. Carbine 40
  18. Light Machine Guns 40
  19. Medium Machine Guns 40
  20. Heavy Machine Guns 41
  21. Tank Machine Guns 41
  22. Air Craft Machine Guns 41
  23. Anti-Tank Rifles 41
  24. Recoilless Gun 42
  25. Guided Missiles 42
  26. AIR Guns/Rifles/Pistols 42
  27. Rubber Bullets and Bullet Launcher 43
  28. Caseless Cartridge 44
  29. Silencer 47

CHAPTER III : AMMUNITION

  1. Introduction 48
  2. Composition of Ammunition 48
  3. Propellant 48
  4. Manufacturing Process 50
  5. Smokeless Powder 51
  6. Bulk Powder 52
  7. Dram Equivalent 53
  8. Dense powder 53
  9. Fibrous Shotgun Powder 53
  10. Gelatinished Shotgun Powder 53
  11. Progressive Powder 54
  12. Degressive Powder 54
  13. Constant Burning propellant 54
  14. Semi-smokeless Powder 55
  15. Primer 55
  16. Percussion Caps 57
  17. Projectiles 58
  18. Elongated Projectiles (Bullets) 60
  19. Cannelure 63
  20. Swaged lead Bullet 63
  21. Shotgun Projectiles 64
  22. Manufacture of Shots 64
  23. Plated Shots 64
  24. T. T. Shots 68
  25. Types of Projectiles in Ball Cartridges 68
  26. Wads 70
  27. Functions of wads noted in items (b) to (d) 72
  28. Turn over 72
  29. Lubricants 73
  30. Cartridge Case 73
  31. Manufacturing Process 73
  32. Pinfire Cartridge Shells 75
  33. Rimfire Cartridge Shells 75
  34. Centre-fire Cartridge Shells 75
  35. Shape of the Shell 75
  36. Signal Cartridges 76
  37. Clips and Chargers 76
  38. Magazines 77
  39. Belt-Feed 77
  40. Accelerator Cartridge 77
  41. Duplex Ball 78
  42. Tandem Bullet 78
  43. Standard Loads for smokeless Powders only 79

CHAPTER IV : INTERNAL BALLISTICS

  1. Introduction 80
  2. Common Defects-Causes and Effects 80
  3. Burning of the Propellant 84
  4. Combustion 85
  5. Deflagration 85
  6. Detonation 85
  7. Burning of Propellant-A function of Geometry of Gun Powder 85
  8. Pressure 85
  9. Combustion of Propellant Charges 86
  10. Black Powder 86
  11. Smokeless Powder 87
  12. muzzle Velocity 89
  13. Barrel Length and velocity 89
  14. Twist v. Muzzle Velocity 92
  15. Density of Loading and Air Space 94
  16. Strength of Barrel and Other Parts 94
  17. Obstructions 95
  18. Faulty metal 96
  19. Burnt barrel 96
  20. Rusting or corrosion 96
  21. Remedy 98
  22. Erosion 99
  23. Recoil, Jump and Vibration 101
  24. Elements of recoil 102
  25. Measurement of recoil 105
  26. Calculation of recoil 105
  27. Recoil can be described in the following way 106
  28. Recoilless gun 108
  29. Cutts Compensator 108
  30. Weaver Choke 108
  31. Hangfire 109
  32. Precautions 109

CHAPTER V : EXTERIOR BALLISTICS

  1. Introduction 110
  2. General Consideration 110
  3. Why the path traced by a bullet has the shape of a parabola? 111
  4. Vacuum Trajectory 112
  5. Calculation of Remaining Velocity 115
  6. Air Resistance 116
  7. Ballistic Coefficient 117
  8. Bullet Drop 117
  9. Wind Deflection 118
  10. Gyroscopic Drift 119
  11. Twist v. Stability 120
  12. Canting 120
  13. Shooting up/down 122
  14. Velocity of falling shot 123
  15. Velocity of falling bullet 124
  16. Escape Velocity 125
  17. Maximum horizontal and vertical range of shot pellets 126
  18. Ricochet 127
  19. Critical angle for bullet ricochet for the
  20. bullet and the surface 128
  21. Relationship between the angle of incidence and ricochet 129
  22. Stability in flight after ricochet 130
  23. Lethal effects of ricochet bullet 130

CHAPTER VI : WOUNDS BALLISTICS-FIREARMS INJURIES

  1. Introduction 133
  2. Stopping Powder 133
  3. Injuries and Quantity of Energy of Projectiles 135
  4. Shock Wave 135
  5. Cavitation Effect 136
  6. Misconceptions in Firearms Injuries 137
  7. The bullet after hitting the bone may bounce back through
  8. the same hole 137
  9. If the wound of entrance is higher on the body as compared to the
  10. wound of exit, then the position of the assailant was at
  11. a higher level than the victim 137
  12. Of the two wounds, communicating with each other, the wound of
  13. entrance is always smaller than the wound of exit 138
  14. The bullet travels in straight line from the wound of
  15. entrance to the wound of exit 138
  16. A bullet emerging from the muzzle of the weapon is so hot that
  17. it will burn the body tissues on impact at close range 138
  18. The bullet shot from a high velocity rifled weapon at a very high
  19. spin rate essentially drills its way into the target 138
  20. There exists a relationship between the survival time and
  21. the severity of the wound which could be ascertained
  22. from an examination of the injuries 139
  23. Whether accidental deaths can be caused due to discharge of
  24. projectiles while cleaning the gun 139
  25. Nature of Gunshot Injuries 139
  26. Abrasion 139
  27. Contusion or rupture 139
  28. Laceration 139
  29. Combination of abrasion, Contusion and laceration 139
  30. Fracture 140
  31. Compression 140
  32. Bleeding 140
  33. Incised wound 140
  34. Stab/punctured/perforating wound 140
  35. Firearms Injuries 140
  36. HAS THE INJURY BEEN CAUSED ON ACCOUNT OF PENETRATION OF PROJECTILES
  37. Examination of the Margins of the wound/Entrance
  38. wound and Fabrics 142
  39. Spot test for lead 142
  40. Walker test for Nitrite 143
  41. Principle 143
  42. Experimental procedure 143
  43. Observation and inference 144
  44. Modified Walker Test 144
  45. Experimental Procedure 144
  46. Detection of Nitrate in presence of
  47. Nitrite and vice versa 145
  48. Thin Layer Chromatography 146
  49. Observation and inference 146
  50. Spot Test 147
  51. Discharge Residue Detection by Flourescence 147
  52. OUT OF THE WOUNDS COMMUNICATING WITH EACH OTHER WHICH ONE IS THE WOUND OF ENTRANCE AND WHICH IS THE WOUND OF EXIT
  53. Sampling Technique 150
  54. Reagent 150
  55. Procedure 150
  56. Result 150
  57. WHAT WAS THE TYPE OF WEAPON THAT CAUSED THE INJURY?
  58. WHETHER THE INJURY WAS SUICIDAL, HOMICIDAL AND ACCIDENTAL IN NATURE
  59. Test for identifying Shooter's Hand 152
  60. Visual examination 152
  61. Paraffin test 152
  62. Rust Stain Detection 154
  63. Gunshot Residue Test 154
  64. Sampling Technique (Swabbing) 155
  65. Washings of the Hand 156
  66. Analytical Technique 156
  67. Detection of Gunshot Particles by S.E. M. 157
  68. Development of Latent Fingerprint on Fired Shell 157
  69. Experimental Arrangement 158
  70. HOW MANY ROUNDS HAVE CAUSED THE INJURIES TO THE VICTIM
  71. Number of Bullets in a victim's body 159
  72. Number of entrance holes 160
  73. Types of shots 161
  74. Penetration of shots in different regions of the body 161
  75. WHAT WAS THE DISTANCE FROM WHICH FIRING TOOK PLACE?
  76. Wounds caused by Machine-guns 168
  77. Airgun/air rifle injuries 169
  78. Blank cartridge injuries 170

CHAPTER VII : SPHERICAL PROJECTILES INJURIES

  1. Introduction 171
  2. Contact Shot 171
  3. Near Contact Shot 172
  4. Range between 1 to 3 yards (0.9 to 2.75 metres) 172
  5. Range between to 3 to 6 yards 173
  6. Range between 6 to 10 yards 173
  7. Pattern between 10-40 yards/10-35 metres 173
  8. Range beyond 40 yards/35 metres 174
  9. Range evaluation from percentage of Pellets 175
  10. Wounding power and Casualty Criteria 175
  11. Pattern of other weapons/Buck Shots 178
  12. Pattern from sawn off barrel 179
  13. Range estimation from wads 180

CHAPTER VIII : COUNTRY-MADE/ZIP GUNS

  1. Introduction 183
  2. Type of weapon 183
  3. Materials for Construction 183
  4. Barrel Design 183
  5. Firing Mechanism 184
  6. Fitting of various parts of the weapon 184
  7. Muzzle velocities and Energy Conclusion 186
  8. Conclusion 186

CHAPTER IX : SURVIVAL TIME AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES OF VICTIMS OF FIREARMS INJURIES

  1. Embolism of missile 189
  2. Activities after Firearms Injuries 189
  3. Prolonged Survival 190
  4. Bullet-proof Protective Vests 191
  5. CHAPTER X : ACCIDENTAL DISCHARGE CASES
  6. Introduction 192
  7. Ten Commandments 193

CHAPTER XI : GUN-SHOT INJURIES-ILLUSTRATIVES CASES

  1. Introduction 195
  2. Case No. 1 195
  3. Case No. 2 199
  4. Case No. 3 200
  5. Case No. 4 202
  6. Case No. 5 203
  7. Case No. 6 206
  8. Case No. 7 207
  9. Case No. 8 208
  10. Case No. 9 209
  11. CHAPTER XII : RANDOM NOTES
  12. Introduction 211
  13. Effect of Choke on velocity 211
  14. Widening of the Pattern of a full choke 211
  15. Light weight 12 bores 211
  16. Best Length of Barrels for shot-guns 211
  17. Report from Different barrel Lengths 211
  18. Weight of Trigger Pulls in shot guns 212
  19. Single Trigger Action 212
  20. Weight of Gun Stock 212
  21. Chamberless Gun 212
  22. Difference between the Barrels of Revolver and Pistol 212
  23. Effect of oil in a Barrel on Pattern or Groupings 212
  24. Effect of oil in Chambers 212
  25. Shot Cartridges in Long Chambers 213
  26. Long Cartridge in Shorter Chamber 213
  27. Gas-tight Cartridge 213
  28. Best Shot size 213
  29. Mould Shot 213
  30. Over Bore 214
  31. Skeet and Trap Shooting 214
  32. Keyhold shots 215
  33. Cartridge Storage Life 215
  34. Can Revolver Cartridge be fired through a Pistol
  35. and vice versa 215

CHAPTER XIII : LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF FIREARMS CASES

  1. Introduction 216
  2. Proof Testing of Firearms 216
  3. Resuscitation of Serial Numbers 217
  4. Technique 217
  5. Cast Iron and Cast Steel: Solution 218
  6. Wrought, Drawn, Forged Iron and Steel 218
  7. Identification from Fired Cartridges and Projectiles 218
  8. Firing pin and breach-face imprints 218
  9. Extractor marks 219
  10. Drag marks 220
  11. Chamber marks 220
  12. Unusual marks 220
  13. Characteristics of marks found on bullets 220
  14. Mismatching of ammunition 225
  15. Unusual marks on fragmented bullets 225
  16. Bullets fired through non-rifled barrels 226
  17. Identification from fired shots/pellets 226
  18. Identification from fired airgun slugs 228
  19. Identification from proof mark 228
  20. Recovery of fired shots/projectiles 228
  21. Bullet recovery box 228
  22. Water recovery tank 230
  23. Comparison 230
  24. Measuring velocities 230
  25. Experimental arrangement 233
  26. Calculation of exact MV 234
  27. Pattern Testing 235
  28. Evaluation of Target Groups 236
  29. Mean point of Impact 237
  30. Study of Injury Report 238
  31. Distinguishing a Fired Shot from Unfired 240
  32. Systematic Recording of Date pertaining to firearms Examination 241
  33. Equipment 245

CHAPTER XIV : SCENE INVESTIGATION OF A FIREARMS CASE

  1. Introduction 249
  2. Interrogation of the Complainant eyewitnesses and the suspect 250
  3. Perception 250
  4. Observations 250
  5. Inconsistency due to time gap 250
  6. Expression 250
  7. Survey of the whole crime scene 250
  8. photography at the scene of Crime 251
  9. Overall photography 251
  10. Photographs of the deceased/victim 251
  11. Photographs of articles of physical evidence 251
  12. Photographing the environs 251
  13. Preparation of the Sketch map 252
  14. Sketch of the locality 252
  15. Sketch of the ground 252
  16. Sketch of the details 252
  17. General Rule for Sketching 253
  18. Choice of Scale 254
  19. Signs 254
  20. Equipments for Drawings 255
  21. Instructions for Collecting, Identifying and Preserving
  22. and Packing Firearms Evidence 258
  23. Hints on Forwarding of Exhibits 260

CHAPTER XV : EXPERT OPINION AND EVIDENCE-GENERAL

  1. Who are experts ? 262
  2. Expertise 262
  3. Clarity 262
  4. Relevancy 263
  5. Reliability 264
  6. CHAPTER XVI : GENERAL OBSERVATION AS TO EVIDENCE ABOUT FIREARMS
  7. Identification 266
  8. Mukhtiar Singh v. State of Punjab 266
  9. Kartar Singh, Mukund Singh v. State of Punjab 266
  10. Ramesh v. State of U. P. 266
  11. Kalu v. State of U. P. 267
  12. Weapon's idea from size of the injury 268
  13. Weapon's idea from the type of injury 269
  14. Accidental discharge cases 270
  15. Reconstruction of crime scene 271
  16. Necessity of Expert's evidence 271
  17. Importance of photographs for presentation of evidence 272

CHAPTER XVII : SPECIFIC CASES OF FALLACIES AND CONFLICTS

  1. Case No. 1: (Bakhtawar Singh v. State of Rajasthan) 276
  2. Post-mortem Report   (Jagga Singh) 276
  3. Injury Report (Balbir Singh) 277
  4. Discussion 278
  5. Case No. 2 : (Modan Singh and Sampuran Singh v.
  6. State of Rajasthan) 279
  7. Test of Expert Report 280
  8. Academic Discussion 280
  9. Case No. 3 : (State of U. P. v. Sugher Singh) 281
  10. Discussion 283
  11. Case No. 4 : (Raza Pasha v. State of M. P.) 283
  12. Discussion 286

SUBJECT INDEX 286

 


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