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A Text Book on Logic II
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A Text Book on Logic II

by Dr. Rekhaa Kale
Edition: 1st Edition, 2019
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Product Details:

Format: Paperback
Pages: 171 pages
Publisher: Central law publication
Language: English
ISBN: 9789388267328
Date Added: 2014-01-01
Search Category: Lawbooks,Textbooks
Jurisdiction: Indian

Table Of Contents:

Chapter 1

MEDIATE INFERENCE

1. INFERENCE

2. IMMEDIATE & MEDIATE CONFERENCE

3. SYLLOGISM

4. FIGURES AND MOODS

5. TESTING THE VALIDITY OF ARGUMENTS

6. NON-STANDARD SYLLOGISMS

a: Syllogism with More Than 3 Terms

b: Enthymeme

i: Suppressed Major premise

ii: Suppressed Minor Premise

iii: Suppressed Conclusion

c: Sorites

 

Chapter 2

REDUCTION

1. REDUCTION

2. ARISTOTLE’S DICTUM

3. MOOD-NAME ALPHABET SIGNIFICANCE

4. DIRECT REDUCTION

5. INDIRECT REDUCTION

a: Reductio ad absurdum

b: Ostensive

 

Chapter 3


DISJUNCTIVE ARGUMENTS

1. TYPES OF ARGUMENTS

a. Hypothetical arguments

b. Disjunctive arguments

c. Categorical arguments

2. RULES OF DEDUCTIVE PROOF

a. The rules of Inference

i. Hypothetical relationship

1. Modus Ponens (M. P.)

2. Modus Tollens (M. T.)

3. Hypothetical Syllogism (H. S.)

ii. Disjunctive relationship

4. Disjunctive Syllogism (D. S.)

5. Addition (Add.)

iii. Hypothetical-disjunctive relationship

6. Constructive Dilemma (C. D.)

6a: Complex constructive dilemma

6b: Simple constructive dilemma

7. Destructive Dilemma (D. D.)

7a: Complex destructive dilemma

7b: Simple constructive dilemma

iv. Conjunction relationship

8. Simplification (Simpl.)

9. Conjunction (Conj.)

b. The rules of Replacement

i. Implication relationship

1. Transposition (Trans.)

2. Material Implication (Impl.)

3. Exportation (Exp.)

ii. Conjunction-disjunction relation

4. Commutation (Commu.)

5. Association (Asso.)

6. Distribution (Dist.)

7. Tautology (Taut.)

iii. Negation relationship

8. Double negation (D. N.)

9. De Morgan's Theorem (DeM.)

iv. Equivalence relationship

10. Material Equivalence (Equiv.)

3. FORMAL FALLACIES

a. Wrong use of hypothetical relation

i. Affirming the consequent

ii. Denying the antecedent

b. Wrong use of deductive relation

iii. Affirming a disjunct

4. RULES OF DEDUCTIVE ARGUMENT IN LAW

 

Chapter 4

DILEMMA

1. DILEMMA

2. TYPES OF DILEMMA

a. Constructive Dilemma (C. D.)

b. Destructive Dilemma (D. D.)

3. REBUTTAL OF DILEMMA

4. REFUTATION OF DILEMMA

5. VALUE OF DILEMMA IN LAW

 

Chapter 5

FALLACIES

1. FALLACY:

2. KINDS OF LOGICAL FALLACIES

A: Formal Fallacies

1: A propositional fallacies

2: Syllogistic fallacies

B: Non-Formal or Informal fallacies

1. Improper use of Grammar

2. Fallacies due to improper group relation

3. Fallacy due to inappropriate application of rules and exception

4. Ignoratio Elenchi

5. Petitio Principii

6. Fallacies out of irrelevant reasoning

3. RELATION OF LOGICAL FALLACIES WITH LAW


Chapter 6

HYPOTHESIS

1. HYPOTHESIS

2. CHARACTERISTICS OF HYPOTHESIS

a. Attempt at explanation

b. Provisional nature

c. Presence of organizing principle

d. Result of rational activity

3. QUALITIES NEEDED TO FRAME A GOOD

HYPOTHESIS

a. Creative ability

b. Ability to think logically

c. Organizing ability

d. Good communication skills

e. Ability to present thoughts clearly

f. Flexibility about modifying the suggestion whenever and wherever needed

g. Knowledge of existing laws

h. Thorough knowledge of science to which the concerned problem belongs

4. CONDITIONS OF GOOD HYPOTHESIS

a. Relevance

b. Self-consistency

c. Ability of deductive development

d. Testability

e. Compatibility with previously established laws & theories

f. Simplicity

g. Ability to explain as clearly as other rival hypotheses

h. Elegance

i. Ability to have probabilistic value instead of pure statistical value

j. Ability to use analogies wherever needed

k. Must satisfy Metaphysical criteria

5. PROOF OF A HYPOTHESIS

a. Verification of a hypothesis

b. Consilience of induction

c. Explanatory power

d. Predictive power

e. Crucial experiment

f. Simplicity

6. KINDS OF HYPOTHESIS

7. USE OF HYPOTHESIS IN LAW

 

Chapter 7

HYPOTHETICAL DEDUCTIVE METHOD

1. HYPOTHETICAL DEDUCTIVE METHOD:

a. Predictive Analysis

b. Experimental Manipulation

2. STAGES OF THE METHOD AS USED IN SCIENCE

1. Formation of Hypothesis

2. Collection of additional evidence

3. Modification of hypothesis if need be

4. Deductive development of hypothesis

5. Testing of hypothesis

3. METHOD OF INQUIRY IN LAW

 

Chapter 8

CAUSATION

1. CONCEPT OF CAUSE

2. COMMON SENSE NOTION OF CAUSE

a. Condition analysis

i: Necessary conditions

ii: Sufficient conditions

b. Grouping errors

i. Plurality of causes

ii. Diversity of Effects

3. SCIENTIFIC NOTION OF CAUSE

1. Cause is an immediate antecedent of effect

2. Cause continues with effect with no gap

3. Cause is a totality of necessary plus sufficient conditions

4. Cause-effect relation is invariable and irreversible

4. CONJUNCTION OF CAUSES AND INTERMIXTURE OF EFFECTS

5. CAUSATION IN LEGAL REASONING

6. MAXIMS IN RELATION TO CAUSATION

a. In jure non remota causa sed proxima spectatur

b. Vis major / Actus Dei nemini facit injuriam

c. Volunti nonfit injuria

d. Respondeat superior

 

Chapter 9

USES OF LANGUAGE

1. EMOTIVE WORDS

2. EMOTIVELY NEUTRAL LANGUAGE

3. AGREEMENT AND DISAGREEMENT

4. KINDS OF AGREEMENT AND DISAGREEMENT

a: Agreement types

b : Disagreement types

c: Agreement-disagreement combinations

d: Dispute types based on agreements and disagreements

5. IMPEDIMENTS IN GOOD REASONING

a. Lacking an adequate vocabulary

b. The Desire to be Tolerant / Open-Minded

c. Misunderstanding Point of Argument

d. The Use of Argument Stoppers

 

Chapter 10

APPLICATION OF LOGICAL REASONING

1. LOGICAL REASONING

2. APPLICATIONS OF REASONING

a: Equality and its implications

b: Ends and means

3. LANDMARK CASES

a: Oskar Schindler’s case: Germany

b: Bob Brown's Case

c: Thomas Generali's Case

d: Joan Andrews Anti Abortion case

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